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Fascism wasn't really anti-Semitic though in its original form, was it? There were Jewish fascists in Mussolini's ranks, along with his mistress. It was probably less anti-Semitic at the time than mainstream politics in a lot of European countries, now that I'm thinking about it.

The idea of American socialists being "completely nationalist" is utterly bizarro. Eugene Debs was the most prominent of them and was an internationalist and uncompromisingly pro-immigrant. You should read his speeches about immigration, it will shock your senses. There was also the IWW (International Workers of the World) who were a big deal in the U.S. and were not nationalists. However, many socialist parties split over the question of whether to support their national governments in World War I (as Mussolini did). Those splits caused a lot of problems, and it's also where Leninism popped out and that was considered pretty extreme, you could say, by arguing for "revolutionary defeatism" where you literally advocate your own country to lose a war.

What also benefited the fascists in Italy is that Mussolini pivoted to be MORE RADICAL than the rather tame, squishy, reformist social-democratic left. It's easy to forget, but social democracy was a major force at the time in a lot of places including Germany before World War I. But they didn't really do much with it. Mussolini's black-shirted legionaries had avant-garde energy that these social democrats lacked (but the later Bolsheviks would capture). In a sense, the fascists were ontologically more like the anarchists at the time, which might be why proto-fascists and anarchists could rub shoulders at Fiume.

But IMO, the right wingers who joke about blue-haired communists... they don't really seem like "fascists" to me. They're just like conservatives, while it feels like "fascists" would try to position themselves as more radical in a sense. Not conservative. I think like this honestly:


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